Take Two Mushrooms and Call Me in the Morning: The Medicinal Promise of Magic Mushrooms walrus (2023)

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S6 years ago,One fall night, I marveled in front of a pinball machine. The game had a space theme with an ornate UFO in the center, surrounded by a kaleidoscope of flashing lights. I was mesmerized but had no idea how to start. The machine's coin slot and shiny buttons were suddenly indecipherable. Time seemed to be dragging on and I was becoming paranoid that the handful of people at the bar were looking at me, wondering what I was doing. That's when I realized the magic mushrooms were taking effect.

This was the first time I had taken a hallucinogen since my early twenties. Back then, as a student, it was a joke. Now in my forties with a family, the idea was daunting. However, this trip had a medical purpose: For nearly two decades, I battled a rare condition known as cluster headaches. Cluster headaches have been described as more painful than childbirth and kidney stones; They are sometimes called "suicide headaches" because they take a mental toll. These headaches come in clusters - mine have them 2 or 3 times a day for weeks. Like migraines, they are difficult to treat. Over the years, I have visited countless neurologists, chiropractors, acupuncturists, and naturopaths. I took prescriptions and experimented with cleanses and diets. Nothing worked.

Then I came across Clusterbusters, a popular message board created by a fellow sufferer where people from all over the world can share advice. One tip gained traction: Several posters reported that after consuming magic mushrooms, their headaches suddenly stopped - miraculously. I was in the middle of a headache cycle at the time and I was dying for the pain to stop. I got in touch with a longtime friend in Toronto, and not long after, we were gobbling down handfuls of fish-flavored dried mushrooms in her newly renovated kitchen.

  • The unfulfilled promise of LSD
  • magic mushrooms
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The mushrooms started about an hour later at this Dundas Street bar. My memory of the rest of the evening is hazy: we finally got to play some pinball (bad), then we left the bar to wander around Bloor West Village, which struck me as a Tolkienian landscape full of quaint gingerbread houses. The trip took about six hours, after which I fell into bed. When I woke up the next morning, I felt different: the mental fog caused by my cluster headaches was gone. I remained headache-free for the next twelve months. I've had a dose of magic mushrooms every year since then, and every year my cluster headaches have stayed in remission.

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My experience may be anecdotal, but it's not unique. Numerous recent studies have demonstrated the potential medical benefits of psilocybin, the psychoactive ingredient in these mushrooms. In clinical studies, psilocybin has been used successfully to treat drug addiction, PTSD, major depression, and yes, cluster headaches. For those suffering from certain difficult-to-treat illnesses, psilocybin now offers a rare glimmer of hope. The problem, of course, is that the substance has long been illegal in Canada – and most other countries too. Pressure is now mounting to decriminalize magic mushrooms for medical use, just as medical marijuana did twenty years ago. But movement has been slow as questions remain about exactly how psilocybin affects the body and mind and the risks involved.

Hhumans tookPsilocybin mushrooms have been around for centuries, if not longer. There are over 180 species with names like Liberty Caps (the most common), Philosopher's Stones (reputed to cause nausea) and Flying Saucers (an especially potent strain). Indigenous peoples of the Americas have long used mushrooms for spiritual communion and healing ceremonies. In the mid-1950s, Americans began to flock to Mexico in search of the so-called sacred mushroom. Scientists were also interested in the medicinal properties of the mushroom. In 1960, the Harvard Psilocybin Project, led by Timothy Leary, began researching the drug's psychological benefits. But the academic interest was short-lived: within a decade, growing political concerns about LSD and other psychedelics led to a crackdown and research programs were virtually shut down.

Only in recent years has interest in psilocybin returned from the peripheries. Spurred by the acceptance of cannabis and ketamine for medicinal purposes, psilocybin research has proliferated, in part through private funding. Several Canadian clinics have recently received approval to conduct trials to treat substance addiction and depression, including BC-based Numinus, which last year completed the first legal harvest of psilocybin mushrooms in Canada for medical testing. Others, like Compass Pathways, the UK private health startup, have attracted high-profile investors including former Facebook supporter Peter Thiel. "Psychedelics are replacing marijuana as the new favorite investment," proclaimed oneBloombergheadline last year.

Of all the possible medical applications, the treatment of major depression appears to hold the most promise. For example, a recent paper from Johns Hopkins University reported that two doses of psilocybin given along with supportive psychotherapy resulted in a rapid and extensive reduction in depressive symptoms. "The magnitude of the effect we observed was approximately four times greater than what clinical trials have shown for conventional antidepressants on the market," said Alan Davis, one of the researchers, in a press release. Other researchers have reported that a single dose of magic mushrooms can increase spirituality, forgiveness, and connection with others—all qualities associated with a happier, more meaningful life.

However, it's not entirely clear how psilocybin works. The benefits appear to be related to the "mystical experience" the drug induces - a hallucinatory state in which a person's sense of self disappears. It's a process similar to pushing a reset button in the brain, sometimes called "ego death". "A psychedelic is more about releasing thoughts and feelings which, when guided by psychotherapy, produce positive results," said Robin Carhart-Harris, director of the Center for Psychedelic Research at Imperial College London.Guardian🇧🇷 Participants in an Imperial College London study who were given psilocybin generally reported better understanding of the cause of their depression, Carhart-Harris said.

Research on the drug's effects on cluster headaches is still in its infancy. Yale University began studying psilocybin's effects on disease five years ago, inspired in part by anecdotal reports from clusterbusters. Sixteen patients were assessed for physical and mental health problems and asked to record their headaches in a diary. A few weeks later, they were given a low or high dose of psilocybin or a placebo. The results haven't been released yet, but lead researcher Emmanuelle Schindler, an assistant professor of neurology at the Yale School of Medicine, tells me they look promising. "It's a proof-of-concept study that confirms in a randomized, controlled way what patients have been talking about for many years," she says.

Part of the purpose of clinical trials, explains Schindler, is to better understand a drug's side effects. Psilocybin can make patients feel nauseous, tingly, or have hallucinatory experiences at high doses—but none of this is unexpected, she says. Nor do they necessarily pose risks, as long as patients are closely monitored. "As long as you have all the safety precautions and approvals in place, I don't see [psilocybin] being very different from studying other drugs," says Schindler. “I think people are starting to see that too.” Still, getting approval for psilocybin clinical trials can be challenging for new researchers, she says. The negative cultural baggage long associated with psychedelics remains.

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The just authorized the useof psilocybin in Canada today is intended for end-of-life care. Last year, Bruce Tobin, a Victorian psychologist and clinical consultant, was one of the first physicians to receive such an exemption under the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act. His patient had been diagnosed with terminal cancer and had fallen into a deep and seemingly incurable depression. "She tried a wide range of pharmacological agents and a variety of therapists and different forms of talk therapy," says Tobin. “Nothing was enough to alleviate his end-of-life difficulties.” In 2017, after reading about promising studies being conducted elsewhere, Tobin filed a lawsuit with the federal government to treat his patient with psilocybin. He cited an earlier Supreme Court case allowing access to medical marijuana as a right under the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

After three years of legal wrangling, Tobin was allowed to treat his patient at his clinic with a dose of five milligrams - slightly less than the amount that would normally induce a hallucinogenic experience. "It was a very difficult experience for her," he says. “There was a lot of crying, mourning and shaking. And yet, by the end of her session, she had come to a place of true peace and acceptance for what had happened to her.” The patient underwent talk therapy before and after the psilocybin treatment, Tobin says, and her depression improved dramatically. Since then, the federal government has granted exemptions to 34 terminally ill patients and 19 physicians. But Tobin says demand for psilocybin is outpacing approvals. "We are basically denying the dying their last request for comfort."

There are obvious parallels between magic mushrooms and cannabis, which Canada approved for medicinal use in 2001 and decriminalized in 2018. But there are also notable differences. Simply put, chewing on a gummy bear with marijuana is one thing; Ingesting a handful of magic mushrooms and embarking on a six-hour hallucinogenic journey is another. "If the environment or circumstances are not skillfully managed, there is potential for harm," says Mark Haden, author ofManual for psychedelic guidesand Director of Clinical Research at Psygen Labs, a Canadian company dedicated to the production of pharmaceutical grade psychedelic drugs. Haden is a strong advocate of using psychedelics for medical treatment, but he also acknowledges the risk of patients being taken advantage of while under the influence of a hallucinogen – or of not being properly guided by an intense experience. "Psychedelics are unconscious amplifiers and people go to their dark places," he says. While there's no evidence that psychedelics can cause mental illness, researchers don't recommend taking them for people with a personal or family history of psychosis. Haden also emphasizes the importance of educating professionals and patients before a hallucinogenic session. "When you're lying on the couch, you need someone to be there for you, to provide stability and support and allow you to get into that place," he says. Likewise, Haden supports the legalization of psilocybin, but argues that it should be limited to people who have completed training and testing.

Two years ago, Tobin founded a nonprofit called TheraPsil to campaign for the legalization of psilocybin for end-of-life care. TheraPsil submitted draft regulations to Health Canada earlier this year detailing how psilocybin should be prescribed and purchased and how the quality of the drug should be standardized. She based her request on similar regulations the federal government created for medical marijuana in 2016. Tobin is cautiously optimistic that the psilocybin regulations will take effect within a year or two. He points to recent polls suggesting that a majority of Canadians support the use of the drug for end-of-life treatment. Other polls found support for its decriminalization in a handful of US cities and states. "Let's look back and realize we're in the Middle Ages," says Tobin.

Legalization for cluster headache patients like me seems a long way off. When I asked Schindler how long she thought it would take psilocybin to become an approved headache medication in the United States, she suggested at least several years, assuming the next phases of clinical trials are successful. "There's still a lot of research to be done," she said.

It was a little disappointing to hear that. Last fall, after the pandemic hit, I was unable to visit my friend in Toronto for my fix (an experience we call our "annual pilgrimage"). So I wasn't surprised when, in late November, my cluster headaches returned for the first time in years. I swallowed an ineffective migraine medication while enduring the headache - several times a day for nearly two months. It was frustrating, stressful, and most of all, painful. The experience was made even worse knowing that if I only had access to a few ounces of dried mushrooms, chances are this would not have happened.

January 7, 2022 Correction: An earlier version of this article stated that Bruce Tobin received an exemption under the Controlled Substances Act. In fact, he received an exemption under the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act. The walrus regrets the mistake.

Brad Badelt

Brad Badelt is a Vancouver-based freelance radio and print journalist.

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Take Two Mushrooms and Call Me in the Morning: The Medicinal Promise of Magic Mushrooms walrus (3)

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What are mushrooms used for medically? ›

Mushrooms act as antibacterial, immune system enhancer and cholesterol lowering agents; additionally, they are important sources of bioactive compounds. As a result of these properties, some mushroom extracts are used to promote human health and are found as dietary supplements.

Do magic mushrooms help with headaches? ›

Psychedelics have been found to have profound and lasting positive effects on those suffering with cluster headache. Psilocybin – a naturally occurring fungal compound – is the most frequently used and LSD might be the most effective of all psychedelics for cluster-headache treatment.

What part of the brain is activated with mushrooms? ›

One study, using positron emission tomography (PET), found that psilocybin increases brain metabolism, especially in the frontal cortex.

What did Terence McKenna say about mushrooms? ›

In his 1992 book Food of the Gods, McKenna proposed that the transformation from humans' early ancestors Homo erectus to the species Homo sapiens mainly had to do with the addition of the mushroom Psilocybe cubensis in the diet, an event that according to his theory took place in about 100,000 BCE (which is when he ...

For which two diseases mushroom is good for people? ›

Mushrooms are a rich, low calorie source of fiber, protein, and antioxidants. They may also mitigate the risk of developing serious health conditions, such as Alzheimer's, heart disease, cancer, and diabetes.

What are 5 health benefits of mushrooms? ›

7 health benefits of mushrooms
  • Decrease the risk of cancer. ...
  • Lower sodium intake. ...
  • Promote lower cholesterol. ...
  • Protect brain health. ...
  • Provide a source of vitamin D. ...
  • Stimulate a healthier gut. ...
  • Support a healthy immune system.
24 Jan 2022

How do mushrooms help your brain? ›

Magic mushroom compound increases brain connectivity in people with depression. Psilocybin, the psychedelic compound found in magic mushrooms, helps to “open up” depressed people's brains, even weeks after use, a study has found.

What mushrooms are good for brain fog? ›

Adaptogenic mushrooms, such as reishi, turkey tail, and cordyceps may help to increase focus, reduce brain fog, and fight fatigue. The aim of using adaptogens for focus is to hopefully repair the HPA axis while combatting stress, insomnia, and fatigue.

Can mushrooms heal the nervous system? ›

The studies done by many researchers as well as on-going studies show that selected mushrooms do have neurotrophic properties that can be beneficial to humans. Regular consumption may promote nerve and brain health. This is particularly useful during injury (as in an accidents) or as we age.

Are mushrooms good for your nervous system? ›

Niacin and Copper found in mushrooms promote the function of the nervous system and keep the nerves healthy. Mushrooms contain vitamin B5, which is necessary for the production of various hormones that play an important role in a properly functioning brain.

How do mushrooms help with PTSD? ›

There is some evidence in animal studies to show that psilocybin, the psychedelic compound found in “magic mushrooms,” may act by stimulating nerve cell regrowth in parts of the brain responsible for emotion and memory.

What is the mushroom theory? ›

Mushroom management means that workers' curiosity and self-expression are not supported. The employees often have no idea what the company's overall situation is, because the leaders tend to make all the decisions on their own, without asking anyone else to give their opinion.

Do we share 50 of our DNA with mushrooms? ›

"They build soils, and without fungi, we wouldn't have food." Stamets explains that humans share nearly 50 percent of their DNA with fungi, and we contract many of the same viruses as fungi.

What is the metaphor in mushrooms? ›

'Mushrooms' by Sylvia Plath is a powerful, deeply metaphorical poem that uses mushrooms as a symbol for women and their struggle for equal rights. The poem slowly but steadily reveals to the reader that the “us” mentioned in the second stanza is a collection of mushrooms and that those mushrooms represent women.

Which mushroom is best for healing? ›

The Top 7 Medicinal Mushrooms
  • Lion's Mane.
  • Reishi.
  • Cordyceps.
  • Chaga.
  • Turkey Tail.
  • Shiitake.
  • Maitake.
  • Bonus: Oyster, Agaricus, Tremella.
18 Jan 2022

Who should not consume mushroom? ›

Consumption of wild mushrooms may result in severe illnesses in humans and can even cause death. As beta-glucans present in mushroom stimulate immune function, people with autoimmune diseases like arthritis, lupus, asthma and multiple sclerosis should avoid consuming it.

Do mushrooms burn belly fat? ›

Mushrooms have been known to promote weight loss and fat burn by regulating the levels of glucose in the blood. Added bonus? They're rich in protein and can help you increase your metabolism, resulting in fat loss.

Is mushroom good for diabetes? ›

Mushrooms are safe to eat if you have diabetes, as their low GI and GL content won't spike your blood sugar levels. Also, their vitamin B and polysaccharide content may offer additional health benefits that are of particular relevance for people with diabetes, including improved blood sugar and cholesterol control.

Are mushrooms good for your stomach? ›

Mushrooms are rich in carbohydrates, like chitin, hemicellulose, β and α-glucans, mannans, xylans, and galactans, which make them the right choice for prebiotics. Mushrooms act as a prebiotics to stimulate the growth of gut microbiota, conferring health benefits to the host.

What is the best mushroom for depression? ›

Reishi: For mood stabilization and immune health, turn to supplements with reishi mushroom. Studies indicate that the fungus can help lessen anxiety and depression symptoms and balance energy levels.

Do mushrooms have memory? ›

But in recent years, a body of remarkable experiments have shown that fungi operate as individuals, engage in decision-making, are capable of learning, and possess short-term memory.

Why are mushrooms intelligent? ›

Mushrooms Can Communicate

Just like humans, mushrooms have the ability to communicate across long distances and based on recent research, possess a level of unexpected intelligence. They have created a superhighway of information that allows interaction between a large and diverse population of individual mushrooms.

What does lion's mane do to your brain? ›

Preclinical studies suggest that Lion's mane may reduce inflammation and biological markers of Alzheimer's (i.e., amyloid plaques), improve cognition, and increase the release of nerve growth factor, a protein that can increase the length of nerve cell processes [3; 4; 5; 6; 7].

Can lion's mane cure dementia? ›

Animal and human studies suggest that lion's mane mushrooms can reverse symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. A small human study suggests that 5 mg of Hericium erinaceus per day can significantly improve symptoms of cardiovascular dementia.

What is the strongest herb for sleep? ›

1. Valerian root
  • According to a 2013 review , valerian root is the herb that people most commonly use to reduce insomnia. ...
  • A 2020 review and meta-analysis investigated the efficacy and safety of valerian root as a treatment for certain sleep disorders.
5 days ago

What drink helps cure headaches? ›

Tea and decaf coffee may reduce inflammation, while juices, milk, and green smoothies can deliver essential nutrients that may reduce migraine episodes. Migraine triggers vary from person to person, and it's important to avoid any ingredients that may worsen your symptoms.

What naturally stops a headache? ›

Natural remedies for headaches
  • Drink water. Inadequate hydration may lead you to develop a headache. ...
  • Take some magnesium. ...
  • Limit alcohol. ...
  • Get adequate sleep. ...
  • Avoid foods high in histamine. ...
  • Try essential oils. ...
  • Try a B-complex vitamin. ...
  • Soothe pain with a cold compress.

What mushrooms are good for pain? ›

One of the most widely researched fungi that aid in pain relief is lion's mane. Hericium erinaceus can ease symptoms of neuropathic pain, an often debilitating symptom of illnesses such as diabetes, nerve injury, and diabetes.

Do mushrooms increase blood flow to brain? ›

Psilocybin significantly decreased brain blood flow and venous oxygenation in a manner that correlated with its subjective effects, and significantly decreased the positive coupling of two key structural hubs (the mPFC and the PCC).

What foods heal nervous system? ›

Six Great Plant-Based Foods to Fight Nerve Pain
  • Green and leafy vegetables. Broccoli, spinach and asparagus all contain vitamin B, a nutrient important for nerve regeneration and nerve function. ...
  • Fruits. Eat at least one fruit daily to help heal damaged nerves. ...
  • Zucchini. ...
  • Sweet potato. ...
  • Quinoa. ...
  • Avocado.
30 Mar 2021

Which mushroom is good for Alzheimer's? ›

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, and no effective treatments are available to treat this disorder. Therefore, researchers have been investigating Hericium erinaceus, or the monkey head mushroom, an edible medicinal mushroom, as a possible treatment for AD.

Is Lion's Mane good for memory? ›

Lion's Mane is packed with a vast array of potent bioactive compounds that stimulate Nerve Growth Factor (NGF). In a double-blind study, researchers found that supplementing with Lion's Mane resulted in improved memory and cognitive function, provided it's taken consistently.

What is the best mushroom for stress? ›

Reishi is one of the most commonly used adaptogenic mushrooms because of its benefits to overall wellness. It works to boost the immune system, relieves stress and anxiety, helps one feel more balanced and get deeper sleep.

What is the most successful form of treatment for PTSD? ›

Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT):

CBT is a type of psychotherapy that has consistently been found to be the most effective treatment of PTSD both in the short term and the long term. CBT for PTSD is trauma-focused, meaning the trauma event(s) are the center of the treatment.

What helps PTSD go away? ›

The following actions can help you recover from PTSD:
  • Get professional help right away. ...
  • Be patient with yourself. ...
  • Talk about it. ...
  • Spend time with others. ...
  • Eat a healthy diet, exercise, and try to get enough sleep. ...
  • Try relaxation methods. ...
  • Join a support group. ...
  • Stay away from negative coping actions.

Does mushroom feel pain? ›

Since mushrooms don't have a central nervous system, they aren't able to feel pain. They are about as conscious as a plant is. Mushrooms don't show any signs of distress when they're plucked from the ground, chopped up, or eaten. Also, consider the fact that the mushroom you see isn't actually an entire organism.

What are 3 characteristics of mushroom? ›

Mushrooms vary in appearance with more than 10,000 known types, but generally they are distinguished by a stem, fleshy rounded cap, and gills underneath the cap.

What is mushroom therapy called? ›

Psilocybin therapy is an approach being investigated for the treatment of mental health challenges. It combines the pharmacological effects of psilocybin, a psychoactive substance, with psychological support. Psilocybin is an active ingredient in some species of mushrooms, often referred to as 'magic mushrooms'.

Do mushrooms have 20000 sexes? ›

The split gill mushroom, Schizophyllum commune, is a species estimated to have 20,000 or more distinct sexes.

What animal do we share 70% of our DNA with? ›

It's probably not that surprising to learn that humans share 98% of our DNA with chimpanzees–but incredibly, we also share 70% with slugs and 50% with bananas.

Which animal has closest DNA to humans? ›

Ever since researchers sequenced the chimp genome in 2005, they have known that humans share about 99% of our DNA with chimpanzees, making them our closest living relatives.

What does the mushroom mean in messages? ›

The 🍄 emoji is a depiction of toadstool mushrooms, which are poisonous and inedible, after all. If someone is warning that something's toxic or not safe to eat, they might throw in a 🍄 emoji for good measure.

What type of poem is mushrooms? ›

Scholars and readers often interpret poet Sylvia Plath's “Mushrooms” as a feminist allegory, rather than a meditation on mushrooms themselves.

Are mushrooms the foundation of life? ›

What is already clear is that without fungi, we would not exist. Playing a vital role in the maintenance of healthy ecosystems across the planet, from the Antarctic deserts to the tropical rainforests, fungi underpin all life on Earth today.

Why do humans need mushrooms? ›

Nutrition and food security. Some mushrooms are commonly found in the diets of many people around the world. These edible mushrooms are rich in nutrients such as vitamin B, C and D, fiber, minerals including potassium, phosphorus, calcium and they are also a good source of protein.

Are mushrooms medicinal? ›

An often under-appreciated food, mushrooms have been eaten and used as medicine for thousands of years. Traditional and folk medicine practitioners laud the bell-shaped fungi for their healing and cleansing properties.

Do mushrooms actually have health benefits? ›

Mushrooms also contain B vitamins as well as a powerful antioxidant called selenium, which helps support the immune system and prevent damage to cells and tissues.

How are mushrooms used in therapy? ›

Ritualistic consumption of psilocybe mushrooms continues into modern spiritual and medicinal practice. The hallucinations produced by the psilocybin induces a trance-like state that is believed to allow the soul to disconnect from the body, resulting in healing and spiritual enlightenment.

How do mushrooms benefit the brain? ›

The studies done by many researchers as well as on-going studies show that selected mushrooms do have neurotrophic properties that can be beneficial to humans. Regular consumption may promote nerve and brain health. This is particularly useful during injury (as in an accidents) or as we age.

What medicinal mushrooms are good for sleep? ›

Medicinal Mushrooms To Help You Sleep Better. Medicinal mushrooms can also support more profound and more restorative sleep. Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum), Cordyceps (Cordyceps Sinensis), Lion's Mane (Hericium erinaceus) and Chaga (Inonotus obliquus) are four types of mushrooms that can benefit you in this way.

Which mushroom is best for energy? ›

Feeling low on energy or need a pre-workout boost? Cordyceps is the fungus for you. This mushroom is known for being very stimulating — for both energy and the libido. Cordyceps can help the body utilize oxygen more efficiently and enhance blood flow .

Are mushrooms good for your lungs? ›

Immunomodulating agents that also have an affinity for the lungs are Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) , Astragalus (Astragalus propinquus), and Cordyceps. These herbs (and mushrooms) are most effective when taken daily over a long period of time to slowly build up the immune system and strengthen the lungs.

Which mushroom has the most vitamin D? ›

The most vitamin D was found in shiitake dried with gills up that were exposed to sunlight for two days, six hours per day.

Do mushrooms absorb vitamin D? ›

Vitamin D-enhanced mushrooms are the only non-animal food product with substantial amounts of bioavailable vitamin D and, as such, have the potential to be a primary source of dietary vitamin D for vegans and vegetarians.

What mushroom is good for anxiety? ›

Reishi: For mood stabilization and immune health, turn to supplements with reishi mushroom. Studies indicate that the fungus can help lessen anxiety and depression symptoms and balance energy levels.

How do mushrooms take in energy? ›

All fungi are heterotrophic, which means that they get the energy they need to live from other organisms. Like animals, fungi extract the energy stored in the bonds of organic compounds such as sugar and protein from living or dead organisms. Many of these compounds can also be recycled for further use.

How do mushrooms help with trauma? ›

There is some evidence in animal studies to show that psilocybin, the psychedelic compound found in “magic mushrooms,” may act by stimulating nerve cell regrowth in parts of the brain responsible for emotion and memory.


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